Did you know that it is likely that Christianity in Wales started in Llantwit Major? That monks from institutions in the Vale of Glamorgan between the fifth and sixth centuries established ministries throughout Britain, Ireland and Northern France?
In this video I discuss this fascinating history with author and historian Philip Morris. We look at the ancient monasteries of the county from the fifth century in Llantwit Major, Llancarfan and Llandough and at pioneers such as St Illtyd, St Cadoc and St Doggo and their influence across Europe.
We look at how different the culture and reach of the Celtic Church was from what came after it. How huge institutions were established, how ideas were spread throughout Europe, how inclusive these communities were and the key role of women as well as men at their healm.
We also look at the impact of the arrival of the Normans, the medieval period and in particular Ewenny Priory.
We discuss the legacy these great institutions left. Everything from the establishment of Cowbridge Grammar School to architectural clues at buildings we can visit today. As well as gems like the story of the miracle of Ewenny, how Corntown got its name, why so many towns in Brittany have Welsh sounding names, why the latin inscribed on the Celtic stones in Llantwit Major is inaccurate and many many more fascinating snippets which anyone with an interest in the local history of South Wales will find truly fascinating.
This video is an episode of ‘History on your doorstep’, first broadcast on Bro Radio on Monday 22 August 2022. Presented by author and historian Graham Loveluck-Edwards cataloguing the history of the Vale of Glamorgan. I hope you enjoy them. And if you do, please subscribe to my YouTube channel and share them on social media.
This often overlooked, gem of a stately home near Barry in the Vale of Glamorgan has an incredible and little known history going back 800 years. And it is still inhabited to this day.
In this video, I talk about Fonmon Castle with Sir Brooke Boothby (BART).
It is his ancestral home. We also hear about his ancestors who can be traced back to the 9th Century and who have lived in Fonmon since the civil war. He reveals some amazing history covering topics as diverse as:
The Norman invasion of Morgannwg
The early days of the 12th Century castle
The St John, Seyes and Umfraville families
Cousins to Henry VIII live at Fonmon
The English Civil war
The most powerful man in Britain lives at Fonmon
Oliver and Richard Cromwell
John Wesley and the Methodists
‘Wild’ Robert Jones and Rococo architecture
The Viking origins of the Boothby family
The power brokers of pre-industrial Wales
First broadcast on Bro Radio in June 2022 as part of the ‘History on your doorstep’ series.
One of the most fascinating and oft overlooked characters in Welsh and British history is Colonel Phillip Jones. He rose to be one of the most powerful men in the entire kingdom and managed to thrive during one of the nations most turbulent periods in history – the English Civil War.
His influence and power was such that it led to questions being asked in parliament as to why it was that “England was being run from a small castle in Wales“.
So who was he? How did he become so powerful? and how was it that despite being a major player under Cromwell during the Commonwealth, that his status continued unhampered when Charles II came to the throne during the Restoration? And how did he manage to achieve that unthinkable goal of any power broker in this period of history; to die of old age in comfortable surroundings with his fortunes and reputation in tact?
And more to the point – how is it that hardly anyone has ever heard of him?
He was born in Swansea in 1618 to a middle ranking ‘county’ family who lived at the Great House (now long gone). They were Calvinist protestants and this influence gave him a natural affinity towards the parliamentarians. As the seeds of dissent were being sewn which led to the English Civil War in 1642 he joined the ‘New Model Army’ under the command of Lord Fairfax where he made quite a name for himself.
Many of the more senior aristocratic families and establishment figures of South Wales were fighting on the King’s side of this war, so when the parliamentarians made gains in the area it was a great opportunity for the likes of Phillip Jones and his more famous counterpart Bussey Mansel to earn fast promotion and patronage.
Jones was appointed Governor of Swansea in 1645, he was promoted to Colonel in the New Model Army in 1646, was made Governor of Cardiff in 1649, became MP for Breconshire in 1650 and then was simultaneously voted MP for both Monmouthshire and Glamorgan in 1654 (he chose Glamorgan) and again in 1656 he was simultaneously voted MP for Brecon and Glamorgan (again he chose Glamorgan). He was appointed Governor of Charterhouse in 1658 and Commander of the militia of Cardiff Castle in 1659.
He also became very close to Oliver Cromwell. Cromwell rather famously fell out with most of the people who were close to him prior to the Civil War once it was over. Even Fairfax turned against him and was instrumental in the second civil war that culminated in Wales at the battle of St Fagans. But Jones was close to Cromwell before, during and after the conflict. We know this because there are records of him visiting Jones at his home in Swansea in 1648 when his armies were moving west to Pembrokeshire (a major royalist stronghold). Then after the civil war in 1654 Cromwell appointed Jones ‘Comptroller’ of his household – which effectively put him in charge of the running of his personal estates. He also appointed him to the privy council and he made him Phillip Lord Jones on 10th December 1657 so he could sit in the upper house of Cromwell’s parliament. So they clearly remained ‘pally’ throughout. In fact Oliver Cromwell was Godfather to Phillip Jones’ son (also called Oliver!)
It was Phillip Jones who organised Oliver Cromwell’s funeral as superintendent on 23rd November 1658.
All of these promotions did wonders for Jones’ income. In 1640 he was estimated at earning £20 a year. By 1658 that had risen to £2,000 a year. Something which put him in a position to be able to upgrade his residence to something more in keeping with a man of his station. And so it was that he bought Fonmon Castle near Rhoose in the Vale of Glamorgan from the StJohn family who had fallen on hard times and were selling off quite a few of their estates at the time.
Being so close to Oliver Cromwell had served him well, but when you are close to a figure so powerful and divisive, it would be easy to find yourself vulnerable and exposed after their death. But Jones, if anything, wound up being even closer to Oliver Cromwell’s successor; his son Richard Cromwell. It was from this period that we get the quote about England being run from a small castle in Wales, and it was also said at the time that “Richard Cromwell will only take advice from Jones and Thurloe and would do nothing without them” – referring to John Thurloe who had been English Secretary of State under Oliver Cromwell.
It was not all plain sailing however. These were very volatile times and you cannot become so powerful a man in the seventeenth century without making some enemies along the way. When Richard Cromwell had his spectacular fall in 1659 (earning him the nickname ‘Tumble Down Dick’) Jones was very much exposed. History was about to overtake him in a twist of events which saw many of his counterparts destroyed but which he – rather miraculously it would seem – not only survived, but actually benefitted from.
The balance of power had moved dramatically against the commonwealth and Charles II was crowned king. Britain was once again a monarchy, and Charles II was a pretty vengeful king. He wasted no time rounding up those parliamentarians who had executed his father for treason 11 years earlier. It was not a good time to be known for having been close to the Cromwells.
At first things didn’t look too great. A group of his enemies brought a series of charges of embezzlement against him, accusing him of having stolen £139,000 in ‘Tythes’ owed to the church. He was also rather randomly accused of “having carried away the organ of St Mary’s Church, Swansea”. There doesn’t seem to be any evidence to support any of these charges but the justice system back then was not quite so reliant on such things as it is now. He came dangerously close to a very sticky end.
He was impeached but never stood trial.
Somehow, Jones found himself in the clear. The new king had intervened on his behalf, and went on to appoint him to be High Sheriff of Glamorgan in 1671. He was more than likely saved by the fact that he was not personally a signatory to Charles I’s death warrant, nor did he play any part in his trial. Also, throughout the period he was in governance he did not take the opportunity others had done, to plunder the king’s estates, nor to take lands from the defeated royalists. In fact he had treated them rather well.
Co-incidentally John Thurloe (who we mentioned earlier) also came out of this new order unexpectedly well. He was initially arrested for treason but never went to trial. He was ultimately given responsibility for foreign policy in Charles II government.
Phillip Jones saw out his days in the leafy and secluded splendour of Fonmon Castle where he died peacefully in his bed on 5th September 1674.
If you want to know more about this amazing character from the Vale of Glamorgan’s history, I will be interviewing one of his direct descendants; Sir Brooke Boothby (Bart) Vice-Lord Lieutenant of South Glamorgan as part of my next episode of ‘History On Your Doorstep’ for Bro Radio which will be all about Fonmon Castle. It is going out on Monday 27th June at 7pm.
If you want to hear that interview and learn what else he has to say about this most wiley of ancestors tune in, or listen again on line or on the app or on my YouTube channel which is packed with videos and podcasts about Welsh history. Please subscribe to it.
No matter how embarrassing your father may have appeared to be when you were growing up, compared to St Cadoc, you had it easy. ‘Who is St Cadoc?’ you may be asking. I am sure you have noticed the many references to ‘Cadoc’ or ’Cadog’ around South Wales. In the names of churches, streets, wells, houses, schools, community centres and hospitals. To say nothing of the village of Cadoxton.
Historically, he was one of the most revered saints in the early Christian church. It gives you an idea how significant a figure he was when you consider that he was born in the latter quarter of the fifth century. Over 1,500 years ago. And we are still naming things after him today.
The life of St Cadoc is recorded in the ancient works of the Cambro British Saints. His story is the first ever to reference the now legendary King Arthur ‘the Great’ of Camelot. Amongst his achievements are the founding of the ‘Clas’ monastery at Llancarfan near Cowbridge as well as many churches throughout Wales, Scotland, Ireland, and Brittany. He also managed to fit in time for the odd miracle. Even as a baby it is claimed that he made the water in the font he was baptised in turn into milk.
All these achievements, however, were in spite of a really dysfunctional upbringing. It was so weird, it wouldn’t look out of place in a Channel 5 documentary
First of all, he was not the only saint in the family. Pretty well his whole family were saints. Then you have his father. All I can say is, I think the bar for sainthood must have been set low back then.
He was a brute, a drunkard, and a pirate. And randomly; a king. He was called Gwynllyw although somehow that got Anglicised in later history to Woolos. He is credited with being the founding father of the city of Newport and the cathedral there is dedicated to him to this day. He fell head over heels in love with Gwladys, the daughter of King Brychan (later Anglicised to Brecon). He wanted to marry her, but Brychan refused him. So Gwynllyw took an army of 300 men to knock on his castle gates and kidnapped her.
His passion for her never seemed to faulter, even in old age. There is an account that in later life after being converted to Christianity by his son; Cadoc, he tried to seek a prayerful retreat on a desolate mountain. His endeavours however would perpetually fail as he could not overcome his carnal urges towards her and could not help himself from continually running back down the mountain to her bed.
If you thought he made a rotten husband, he was hardly parent of the month either. There is also a story that one day, he gave his infant son: St Cadoc away to a total stranger in exchange for a cow while out on a drinking spree. We’ve all done it. Oh no. Hold on, we haven’t, have we?
But against all the odds, Cadoc grew up to be a cornerstone of early Christian mission in northern Europe and became famous across the known world for his wisdom. In the modern Catholic church, he is still patron saint of burns and skin complaints, so he is the one to pray to if you are bothered by such things. His father is patron saint of Newport and pirates. No words needed.
In the 1700s if you wanted to be sure of some good weather for the weekend, there were people from whom you could buy it! And according to some new research, Barry was full of them.
Most people back then, sailors and sea farers in particular, were extremely superstitious. This played into the hands of a small group of people who you might either call ‘enterprising’ or ‘unscrupulous’ depending on your own moral compass.
They would ‘sell’ weather and I have found records of three such people who operated in the Barry and eastern Vale area in the eighteenth century.
The first was called ‘Modryb Sina’ (which means Aunty Sina). She lived somewhere in the parish of Cadoxton. If you sailed out of Lavernock or Sully, for a fee, she would sell you ‘a fair wind’. Enough to fill your sails and give your vessel speed on the waves, but not enough to put you in danger. It seems that she peddled her wares for over 20 years so she must have been good.
But she obviously was not quite as good as another chap who lived on Barry Island called ‘Ewythr Dewi’ (or Uncle David). He not only sold weather to local sailors but was known to travel as far a field as Swansea as his ‘fair weather’ was in such demand. His reputation for doing a good line in weather was impeccable amongst the superstitious sailors of the Welsh ports on the Bristol Channel.
Both of these people lived and worked in Welsh speaking parts of the Vale, and therefore catered for Welsh speaking sailors. But what if you were an English speaking sailor? Have no fear, you were catered for by another local man going by the name of ‘Bill O’Breaksea’ who offered a similar service in Aberthaw (which was an English speaking part of the Vale). However, we cannot be sure when he operated as records of him are more sketchy. Chances are it was around the same point in history or slightly earlier, when Aberthaw was having its boom years, trading with the merchants of Minehead and providing the people of Bristol with their supply of butter.
There is also folklore of wives who had grown weary of drunken, slothful or abusive husbands going to these people to pay for a good storm the next time they put to sea. To rid themselves of them once and for all. Probably cheaper than a divorce. Like I said, depending on your moral compass.
The Glamorgan Ridgeway is a footpath through millennia. Its verges festooned with ancient monuments dating back to the Bronze Age. Are we walking in King Arthur’s footsteps up here? I investigate two sites with claimed links. One more promising than the other.
You also get to meet my dog, Jasper – the history hound, as he loves a good walk.
In this video I cover:
The course of the Ridgeway, where it starts and finishes, the ancient hill fort and the battle against the Romans at Mynydd-Y-Gaer, Llanbedr-Yn-Y-Mynydd (also known as Peterston-Super-Montum) and the claim that it is the site of Avalon, Mynydd Baeden and it’s potential to be the site of the Battle of Badon Hill and lots of stuff about King Arthur and the war between the ancient Britons and the invading Angles and Saxons. And the conspiracy that this period in history has been deliberately suppressed.
This video is written, presented and published by Welsh author, columnist, broadcaster and historian; Graham Loveluck-Edwards. I produce a series of videos about history, myths and legends from South Wales. I hope you enjoy this one. And if you do, please subscribe to this channel and feel free to share on social media.
🏴🍺⛪️Is the Church Inn in Llanishen the oldest pub in Cardiff? And what was the scandal David Lloyd George witnessed there but kept under wraps? Did Oliver Cromwell stay at the Church? This 9-minute video has all the answers. A must watch for Cardiff history buffs.
The Church Inn, in Llanishen, in north Cardiff is an 18th Century coaching inn from the Georgian era. During our visit we look at the pub and it’s history, the ‘Welsh Sunday Closing Act’ of 1881 and how a visit by a future Prime Minister; David Lloyd George uncovered an uncomfortable truth.
This is one of a series of short videos in which I examine a moment in Welsh history, from the perspective of our ancestors. Specifically, when they were propping up the bar in a pub which was at the heart of the action. These are the stories I gather from visiting some of the oldest and most interesting pubs in Wales. I hope you enjoy them. And if you do, please subscribe to this channel and share them on social media.
The county line between Bridgend and Rhondda Cynon Taff follows a bank of rather dramatic and beautiful mountains (when they are not veiled in cloud). Their ruggedness contrasts sharply with the lush, green pastures of the lowland, coastal areas to the south. Meandering across the top of the first peaks we see, is an ancient road, now little more than a footpath. It is known as ‘the Glamorgan Ridgeway’. It pre-dates any other recognisable thoroughfare in the area, even the ‘Via Julia Maritima’; the Roman road from the Antonine period which these days is loosely followed by the A48. We know this as the Romans themselves described the Ridgeway as ‘ancient’.
In its entirety it runs from the Preseli Mountains in Pembrokeshire to the Severn estuary. There is evidence to suggest that during the Roman era, it was still possible to ford the River Severn at low tide, so it could be argued that the road actually leads all the way to London.
The part which runs closest to us rises at Llangeinor, then winds its way across the peaks through Llantrisant to Mynydd-y-Garth. It is littered with barrows and cairns (ancient burial sites) dating from the Bronze Age and some possibly even older, as well as long abandoned Iron Age hillforts and deserted villages. It also rewards the intrepid walker with spectacular views across our counties and across the Bristol Channel to the north Somerset coast. On a clear day you can see as far as the Prince of Wales bridge to the east and the Gower peninsular to the west.
For much of history this was a drovers’ pass. Used by those hardy men who would risk life and limb driving their valuable charges of cattle from the farms of west Wales to the cattle markets of Smithfields in London. At the mercy of every bandit along the way. There is an account of a gang of ne’r-do-wells from the Llynfi valley who called themselves ‘The Red Goblins’ once mounting an ambush on the Carmarthenshire drovers on this path. They helped themselves to their entire herd.
This path has been trodden by some very famous people down the ages too, and it has a link to one of the most momentous events in British history.
Usurping a throne is a tricky business. Kings liked to perpetuate the notion that they were personally appointed by God to rule, therefore assuring themselves of a bit of security while on the throne. So, when William the Conqueror invaded in 1066 and took the English throne for himself, he had to find ways of demonstrating that he was acting under God’s will. He had to legitimise himself as King.
That was a tall order, so he had to grasp at anything he could. For example, in the Bayeux tapestry there is a scene that shows King Harold visiting William in Normandy before the Norman invasion. He is depicted swearing upon holy relics that he recognised William as the legitimate heir to the English crown. Another tale he spun which is not quite so well known, was that soldiers in his army saw visions in Hastings that they were supported in battle by some of our ancient, Welsh saints. If these saints were on his side, it meant a more ancient precedent was being called up on as they were contemporary with the ancient Britons, and King Harold, after all, was of Saxon decent.
One of the first things William did as King of England to cement this story, was to go on a pilgrimage to the shrines of these saints who had fought for Normandy in the Battle of Hastings. This meant taking the Ridgeway to the tomb of St David in his Cathedral in Pembrokeshire and stopping on the way in Newport at the shrine of St Woolos-the-bearded.
It is believed that William was accompanied on this pilgrimage by a young Robert Fitzhammon. It was while on this pilgrimage that he first saw the fertile fields of Morganwg, in the plains below the Ridgeway. This was the kingdom he would ultimately return to invade and bring under the control of the English crown only 11 years later.
Published in The Glamorgan Star Newspaper and the Buddy Magazine Jan 2022
What connects the ‘Dipping Bridge’ in Merthyr Mawr (near Bridgend) with the most notorious murderer and highwayman in 18th century Glamorgan? 🐎💀
I have gone back to where it all happened to piece together the history of that time and bring it alive.
This video is all about the man at the centre of this controversy, the veracious outlaw; ‘Cap Coch’. It looks at
▶️Who he was,
▶️The crimes he committed,
▶️What happened to him,
▶️How murder and robbery could happen on such a scale in what seems to be a peaceful, quiet spot.
▶️And how he evaded justice for so long.
I really hope you enjoy it – running time 12 minutes – feel free to share on your socials. Great introduction to history if you have kids or grandkids who are curious about what used to go on in and around Bridgend in the olden days.